Unlike previous generations, young people today, more than ever before, face mental illnesses. Today’s pop culture – the music, tv shows, and movies – all show how teenagers, just like you and me, often turn to prescription drugs rather than choosing more beneficial options. According to the National Alliance of Mental Illness, about one in every five children is challenged with a battle with their own minds, as well as the negative stigma attached to it. I myself have undergone through a similar time. A dark time of loneliness, fear and absolute depression. Constant fights with my friends along with the stress of school and family issues fed into it constantly, but I searched for the right solution, resolute in my attempts to overcome it. In a school as large as John P. Stevens, there are bound to be other cases of mental illnesses, and it is important to keep in mind that motivation to make the right decisions is the key to overcoming it. In an attempt to strike back against their disorders, teenagers often rashly choose prescription pills over therapy, an immediate solution that often leads to even worse outcomes. There are very few telltale signs to determine who is battling mental turmoil, and the student body of John P. Stevens is no exception. It could be your lab partner, or that shy girl in the back of the class – maybe even that confident boy who excels at public speaking. Having a mental illness doesn’t stop teenagers from trying to seem normal, for they too can post funny Snapchat stories and have creative Instagram posts. Most of the time, social media is but a facade, where people seem entirely different from whom they really are, and feelings are obscured by meaningless captions. Drug companies manufacture thousands of types of medications a year, which prove to be easy to obtain and use. These medicines have countless side effects and can oftentimes be more detrimental than give helpful results. Depending upon the illness, the side effects vary; they range from uncontrollable muscle spasms to hallucinations, along with paranoia and suicidal thoughts. The battle that these teenagers go through leaves them vulnerable, and their behaviors become unpredictable. With what they’ve had to face, most teenagers would be susceptible to anything – not just the side effects of their medicine – whether it be a harsh word or a rough day. I recall that in my experience, even the slightest bit of criticism or any sort of negative comment would set me off, leaving me in a well of tears and a pool of hopeless pessimism. Mental instability creates a state of fragility, which is why the need to be kind is emphasized so greatly. Simply a sarcastic comment or a meaningless joke can wreck all the progress they have made and ruin their day as well as their hopes of getting better, so really – just be nice. As reported by the National Institute of Medical Health, more than 80% of people that have a mental disorder don’t get the help they need, usually due to the treatment method they undertake. Without being addressed properly, mental disorders can last for a lifetime. Faced with not only social and political implications of having a disorder, children encounter biological impacts as well. Most of them hide their problems, even from their friends, afraid of the negative attitude it may cause, which may further worsen the isolation they stand against. I, myself, only told a trusted few about the intensity of my situation. Although initially, it proved to be difficult to expose the part of me that remained hidden from the rest of the world, there were countless breakdowns that my friends supported me through. It can really help to gain support from close friends, for they were the glue that held me together in dire circumstances. Physically, those who suffer from mental diseases can experience excessive weight gain, or excessive weight loss. Stress causes a varying response in different people – some tend to eat more, and some less. This can also lead to a troublesome result, causing body image insecurities which would then only aggrandize their problems. Teenagers respond more to psychological intervention than to medicine, because they release their thoughts like I did, and instead of constantly building up their emotional dilemmas, they are given advice and possible solutions to release them of further problems. The presence of a single mental disorder can lead to the accumulation of others, giving way to more stress and imbalance of the chemicals in their brain. As the pharmaceutical industry creates more and more products to help these teenagers, they are prompting them to take these pills without precaution, and remaining unaware of the other treatment options. Doctors suggest therapy, but by offering pills that they present as a substitute for talking to a professional and exploring different techniques that may help change their mindset, they are inclining teenagers to opt for medicine. Prescription medicine only provides a short term relief from their issues, and after it wears off, another dose needs to be consumed. However, therapy has proven to be a more reliable solution which eradicates the very root of the problem a child is going through rather than implementing a temporary fix. With most medication found in pharmacies, constant usage usually makes the user immune to it over time. This only calls for a higher dose to be required by the body, therefore requiring a purchase of more of a stronger medicine. Potent medicine, especially in teenagers, is found to give way to substance abuse, resulting in an overdose, which just creates a larger issue. Addiction to prescription drugs will simply augment their negative lifestyle, now causing a need for more medicine to create a high; it introduces an escape from the throes of their mental illness for a limited amount of time. We’ve all learned about drug abuse and the life threatening consequences it has, and that, along with a mental illness, is a concoction for a crisis. Children who have mental health problems are urged to simply take medicines rather than talking out their problems which isn’t directly the fault of a doctor, nor the condition the patient is in, but rather the seemingly easy solution offered by the pharmaceutical industry. They aren’t made aware of the dangers present that come along with these apparent panaceas. It is evident that teenagers facing any sort of mental illness or disorder should seek therapy and psychological help rather than simply opting for a bottle of pills. Facing their problems by discussing them with a professional therapist in order to conceive a successful method to help with their specific troubles and eliminating them is the more logical, and proven to be more successful, method of dealing with mental illnesses.
As approximately 30,000 runners participated in the one of oldest annual marathons, crowds were anxiously awaiting at the finish line cheering on the runners. Spectators were undeterred by the chilling rain and temperatures of 40’s.
Undeniably, talk of what had occurred two years ago was brought up among the viewers. However, with the higher police presence, bomb-sniffing dogs, dump trucks blocking the streets, and bag inspectors at several checkpoints, a breach in security was unlikely.
The Winners for the 2015 race taking place today, Monday April 20th were: Caroline Rotich, Lelisa Desisa, Tatyana McFadden and Marcel Hug.
Caroline Rotich, the winner for the womens division, finished the race with a time of 2:24:55. The Kenyan was not leading at any of the checkpoints at the race and was, for a while, lagging behind as the finish line approached. Competing against Mare Dibaba, Rotich broke into a sprint completing the race just four seconds earlier than Dibaba claiming the winner’s purse in the process- $150,000.
Lelisa Desisa, crowned first place for mens, completed the race with a time of 2:09:45. Representing Ethiopia, he won his second Boston Marathon this year. As he crossed the finish Line he shouted “Strong Boston!” a version of “Boston Strong” moto that became the city’s rallying cry after the April 15, 2013 attack that killed three and injured 264. Dedisa who finished with a 31 second margin, won $150,000.
Tatyana McFadden, claimed her third straight victory at the Boston Marathon for the women’s wheelchair division. She was representing not only America in this race but also memory of Martin Richard, a bombing victim from the marathon two years ago. Finishing at 1:52:54, she won by a minute.
Marcel Hug, finished first for the men’s wheelchair division with a time of 1:29:53. Nicknamed “Swiss Silver Bullet” this swiss had placed fourth place in 2013 and 2014. He took control of the race around the 15K mark and never looked back. He won by a solid seven minutes.
These winners represent not only great effort and quality, but courage, unity and resilience.
Participating in the race only two years after a bombing not only revived the belief in freedom but kept the spirit of the marathon ongoing.
In the years to come, we can only hope the Boston Marathon continues and flourishes as it does to this day.
Crouse, Lindsay. “This time Lelisa Desisa wins Boston Marathon for himself.” New York Times. 20 April 2015. Web.
How can a company maximize revenue? How can it go above and beyond what it already earns? How can it make sure that its product/service sells vastly and quickly among the masses? When asked these questions, we may be inclined to suggest the traditional routes: lowering prices, decreasing production costs, widening the target demographic, etc, etc. Sure, sure, a company can do all of that, but the time period needed to implement such changes isn’t a short one. Say, a business that sells organic products suddenly decides to lower the price of its fruits from $2.00 per pound to $1.50 per pound. Of course, new customers will be drawn to the fifty cent drop, and daily customers will buy even more fruit, largely due to the income effect.
But, a change in price is practically useless if the product/service doesn’t generate sufficient demand. The decreased price for organic fruit is certainly tempting, but not to those who don’t even want organic fruit to begin with. In other words, a company will have the highest chance of maximizing its revenue when the factor of demand is on its side. But, how can a business truly know if its product/service is in demand? How can it infiltrate the minds of countless consumers and discover what they really want?
For many businesses nowadays, big data is turning out to be a very popular answer. Big data, essentially, is a term for a massive amount of data, both structured and unstructured, that is difficult to process using baseline software techniques. This includes the online footprints of the thousands of people that use social media, engage in web transactions, and have some record of general online activity. If successfully captured and organized, such data can give companies some strong clues about the preferences of the public. For example, let’s say Person A is on the hunt for a new car. During his search, he posts on Twitter: “Looking for a ride with class and a lot of safety features! #safetycomesfirst.” Big data analysis actually picks up on these little details, and the Audi dealer a few streets down can make sure to offer a model with multiple safety features if Person A happens to come by. How’s that for acquiring more revenue?
Not only that, but big data analysis also provides insight on how a company can go about changing its product/service for the better. Again, with unstructured social media posts in which consumers express their true sentiments about the things they purchase, companies can see what aspects of their output make people unhappy and alter these aspects for the better. Going off the previous example, let’s imagine Person A again, this time driving the new Audi he bought from the local dealer. Person A is happy with his overall purchase, but is dissatisfied with one key element: the heating system. Hence, he writes a blog post saying, “This Audi is nice… but wish I didn’t have to freeze for the first ten minutes while it heats up.” With big data, the Audi dealer can now see that Person A is discontent with the heating system, and then go on to investigate if others across the nation are reporting the same problem online. If so, the Audi company as a whole can take steps to improve this apparent defect by addressing individual concerns, upgrading current production, and/or releasing new and improved models.
So, indeed, big data analysis has the power to completely change the course of a company. Businesses who have not yet invested in this technology should do so immediately. With big data at their side, they can stop the guessing games and actually know what consumers want – the biggest advantage of all.
We all know Google: our best friend when it comes to severely-needed homework help, recipes on how to prepare delectable Mexican cuisine, difficult trigonometry formulas, social media, and various other applications. As we can see, google has multifarious applications to offer the public. However, soon its website will not be the company’s primary fame – its cars will. The Google cars are a revolutionary way of commuting. Google’s unique, self-driving car clearly manages to do the impossible, opening up a new, revolutionary phase in the field of technology development and autos.
To begin with an obvious point, this innovative car contains countless gadgets, processors, scanners, laser sensors, and various other types of modern technology. With a five-year old project like this taking place in California, USA, a strong, intelligent, innovative, and collaborative team is an essential requirement. Consequently, Google decided to call in the elite experts rather than the average workers. Their team comprises dexterous rocket scientists who have worked on NASA’s intricate Mars projects and adroit vehicle development engineers, such as Jaime Waydo. Each member of the vast and organized team undoubtedly plays a vital role in various, minor parts of the car, with each member being responsible for something different.
The car has multiple and expensive major and minor parts. Firstly, an expensive laser sensor, located at the top of the car, scans 360 degrees for any objects or other hazards within a certain radius of the car. A processor reads the data that has been accumulated by the various sensors and accordingly, regulates vehicle behavior. A hidden orientation sensor, located at the front of the car, tracks the car’s motion and balance, while the radar (a bulging black, oval also at the front of the car) accurately measures the speed of vehicles ahead of itself. Lastly, a wheel-hub sensor, which is located in the car’s tires, detects the number of rotations to help determine the car’s location. These are just a few, astounding pieces of technology in the pioneering car.
Moreover, in the past few months, the self-driving Google car went on several test drives during the beginning of Spring (2015) in California. As stated in the USA TODAY article titled A look inside the Google Car lair, “The Google Car had been waiting about four minutes at an intersection before finally deciding the coast was clear. A human might have taken a chance during a lesser break in traffic. Honking had ensued.” Evidently, this highly secure car does not take any chances.
All in all, with a goal of having driverless cars available on the market within a few years, these cars are sure to revolutionize commuting as well as technology.
Curiosity. A nine letter word that may mean, a “strong hearted desire to know or learn something.” However, to Alberto Manguel,it is a word that enthralls him like no other, it gave him an effervescent sentiment that caused him to write a book on this matter itself. You might be ‘curious’ to know what the title was, but Manguel’s quirky mind pivoted towards a more simple approach.
Curiosity, yes that is what Manguel’s latest, all-encompassing book is entitled. This so called collection of “The cabinets of Curiosity,” sees the glory in every possibility, the very exhilarating adventures of fantasy , and the majestic wisdom of the mystical past, along with a twist of modernity.This influential yet common philosophical work might as well,transcend time itself. How so? According to Manguel, he finds the answers of life’s most greatest questions embedded inside the obscure glasses of history and time. He lucidly does so, by paying his homage to Dante Alighieri ,an Italian poet in the middle ages, also widely known as “The Father of the Italian Language.” His “Divine Comedy” is known to be a timeless masterpiece in literature, as it is read worldwide. Alberto Manguel does in an exquisite manner,pay his homage to the maestro of the written word ; Dante.
Despite, his obvious fantasized “Encounters with the dead in hell as their abode, and the purgatory in heaven, from the Divine Comedy,” he recites the immortal language defined by the greatest books of the world : Homer, Plato, Hebrew Talmud, Christian Gospels, Sanskrit Vedas. Upon, hearing the resonating names of these widely renowned books, one might ask if Manguel actually found the answers? Manguel, would say in response ,that questions like “What are we doing here,” “What is reason,” are the questions that scientists have been devoting a lifetime in answering. and Manguel who is 67 has prompted insights on the themes prevalent in these historical texts.However, he has done so, in a captivating way, that has reached back to more than 7 centuries of philosophical works, that he can grasp most of them (the authors) by his impregnable hand.
I have purposely, not meant to specifically tell what this provocative book is about, and the various passages that sparkle amongst the rest. But, I will leave off by telling some of the spellbinding notions, and events that altered the course of time, and hazed history,in an almost perplexing manner.These include illness, climate change, cultural frontiers, the horrifying nightmares of Auschwitz, Hiroshima,and Nagasaki, and of course, death.These may be, merely phrases that have nonetheless affected your life, but it is vital to understand its direct correlation in the mysterious realm of history.These events, and phrases , are philosophical gifts that Manguel is willing to question, but not promise any answers to.
“Then why should I read it?” Curiosity, conjures life’s greatest questions, it provides meaning to the meaningless, it is true guidance in a world embroidered with confusion. Alberto Manguel creates a multiverse in his very own book. I truly hope that this riveting read becomes assimilated into the readers world .
When hearing “The United States of America”, various phrases may occupy your mind, ranging from incomparable justice to detrimental obesity. After all, our precious nation is known for unique actions and manifold events, and one, rather vicious yet unforgettable, action that our nation executed was on August 6, 1945. Several historians, scientists, and soldiers attribute the titles of “The Day the World Changed Forever” and “Japan’s Terrible Destruction” to this date. August 6, 1945 is the day that the United States of America bombed the Japanese city of Hiroshima, as part of a bellicose movement during the World War II.
The first atomic bomb, the American B-29, was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The deadly bomb had abruptly, within milliseconds, killed 80,000 people; anyone who was within a one-mile radius of the bomb had been immediately vaporized and transformed into carbon instantaneously due to the intense heat, undergoing a painless yet extremely abrupt death. This gargantuan explosion had unfortunately wiped out ninety percent of the city’s population, and those who had luckily managed to survive, suffered numerous third-degree burns and various other wounds/ burns throughout their entire body. However, even though the bomb finished making its vastly detrimental effect, deaths continued. Thousands of people passed away later on due to the exposure of severe radiations. Furthermore, for the next several generations and decades, deformed babies were being born as a result of the radiations. Despite suffering thousands of deaths, Japan refused to surrender and exactly three days later, a second B-29 atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 40,000 people. Afterwards, Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced Japan’s unconditional surrender in the devastating and global World War II through a radio address on August 15, 1945, referring to the injurious and deadly power of the “new and most cruel bomb.”
Unfortunately, many people do not realize and fathom the deadly effects of an atomic bomb, and with the current advances in technology, powerful countries, such as the United States of America, Russia, France, China, Israel, United Kingdom, India, North Korea, and Pakistan are the few countries in the world that contain atomic bombs- and these bombs are not similar to the American B-29 bomb in any way. With constant advances in engineering, technology, and science in the previous decades, modern atomic bombs are approximately hundred times more powerful and deadlier than the B-29 bomb. In fact, the world has accumulated so much nuclear arsenal that the entire Earth can be completely annihilated multiple times! Astonishing, right?! The B-29 explosions in Japan undoubtedly serve a grim reminder of the danger of nuclear war. They educate the public on how devastating these atomic bombs are and definitely admonish the upcoming generations that the use of atomic bombs should be precluded as they have catastrophic consequences.
Clearly, we, as in all of humanity, have to learn from our mistakes to preclude them from reoccurring. As the banal cliche puts it “Those who don’t read history are condemned to repeat it.” All in all, mankind should not be subjected to this ordeal ever again, and thus, the public’s education is downright critical in order to ensure that history is not repeated, with its disastrous effects.
Record-high levels of snow for Boston. Unusually slow start of spring for eastern US. Bare-capped mountains in the West. Lakes, streams, and reservoirs running dry in California, Taiwan, and the rest of the world.
Recently, similar to Gov. Jerry Brown (D-CA) who had called for mandatory water rationing to combat one of the worst drought in California history, legislators from New Taipei City, Taipei, Taoyuan, and other major cities in Taiwan have also ordered similar rationing. Taiwan, if one does not know, is an island-nation of about 14000 square miles off the coast of Mainland China in the East China Sea. Its isolated geographic location and small size pits the 23 million living on the island a serious dilemma–to rain or not to rain, that is the question. Because it is so small, the rivers and streams need rain, and more so, monsoon or typhoon-esque rain to stay flowing and to provide adequate water supply for the 23 million living there. However, with typhoons come damage, and frequently, billions of dollars and hundreds of lives of damage. So when it comes a year when Mother Nature “cooperates” and gives Taiwan a break, water shortages and devastating rationing laws come into effect the next year. But when a strong typhoon comes, it causes expensive damage but brings a year of water to the island. So it’s question for Taiwan: Are the opportunity costs of typhoon damages worth a year without water shortage?
However, this also brings up the issue of water-conservation to the rest of the world. We are at a crossroads. Global warming and climate change has made its mark on Earth already (receding glaciers in the North Pole and Antarctica, growing ozone hole, more terrifying natural disasters across the globe, erratic tornado seasons for the American Midwest, and unusually cold winters and warm summers). Nations are fighting over precious resources, religion, nuclear arms race, and more. Economic recessions have also spanned throughout nations with the gap between rich and poor widening. Yet our desires for the best technology and greed have been unending.
So is this what our future holds? Desires and greed fueling an infinite fight for necessary resources and spoiling our finite planet Earth. Therefore, we must act now. We must begin to learn to control our desires before it is too late. We must re-define our needs and wants. Do we really need that new iPhone? Or check our phones 24/7? Or is it time to slow down our lives and reevaluate our lifestyles, appreciating more of what we have than craving for more? It’s up to us to decide.
Shark attacks are fatal. Everyone knows this. However, in the past four years, these attacks have increased dramatically. In La Reunion, a French Indian Ocean island, a thirteen-year-old boy, Elio Canestri, was killed by a shark while surfing.
When people heard this news, at once they thought that he was not careful enough in the ocean waters. However, this is untrue. Whenever Elio went out to surf, he always left a note for his parents stating that he would only surf if there was security. The Canestri family knew how dangerous the waters were and his father said that “[he] was someone who always listened to his parents. He analyzed danger intelligently, he was a competitor” (1). He, along with six other surfers, were killed by sharks. A lack of security was not the issue.
Since this predator is now increasing its presence in our lives, people have started to wonder why they are attacking humans “unprovoked” (2). They are not developing an appetite for humans, if that is what you are wondering. Shark researcher George Burgess concluded that the increase in shark attacks was related to the increase in human population. If the number of shark attacks had increased in a certain area significantly, then it is very possible that the human population in that area had increased significantly as well. It is also true that water sports such as jet skiing and surfing have become more popular as well. This is causing more humans to enter the “shark turf,” causing sharks to attack humans more frequently (2).
Unfortunately, Burgess states, the number of shark attacks will not decrease any time soon. In the next fifteen years, “attacks will become more common,” so it is crucial that humans should not enter the ocean waters at dusk, dawn, in the nighttime, or where someone is fishing (2).
Austin, Henry, and Cassandra Vinograd. “Shark Attack: Teen Surfing Champion Elio Canestri Left Mom Note.” NBC News. NBC News, 14 Apr. 2015. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
Dier, Arden. “Why the World Will See More Shark Attacks.” Fox News. FOX News Network, 14 Apr. 2015. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
The human brain is the single most complex thing in the known universe. Even in this age of medical wonders, we still have not been able to uncover the full secrets of this incredible organ. However, we do know some things about the most important organ in the body.
- The belief that humans only use 10% of their brains is incorrect. Each part of the brain has a specific function and the average person uses all the various parts of the brain.
- The brain has a texture similar to tofu, and enough liquid to fill a 2 liter tank.
- Thoughts create ‘pathways’ that connect different parts of the brain. The more we repeat a thought, the more that pathway will become more central, wide and stable. That is why it is important not to think over and over about negative things, because they become permanent, and strong, pathways in your mind, and the chances are will force themselves on you more and more.
- We think about 70,000 thoughts a day. A large part of these are ‘automatic’ thoughts that we repeat a lot, using our most ‘established’ thought pathways.
- Most people dream about 4-7 dreams a night. 50% of those dreams are forgotten in the first minutes after waking. And the one we remember is usually one we were either just dreaming or a mix of all the dreams we had put together. No wonder they always seem so confusing.
- Sleep is usually the time the brain uses to organize and put together the memories is accumulated throughout the day. And so, in many cases, before making big decisions it’s better to ‘sleep on it’.
- The messages between the various brain cells (neurons) are passed in the form of weak electrical pulses. The brain creates 23 watt of electricity while awake, enough to light a light bulb.
- While we laugh, about 5 areas lit up in the brain simultaneously.
- The brain isn’t fully developed until the teen years are over. Multitasking, showing empathy and good decision making are some of the skills that develop a little later.
- The brain is constantly changing. Damage to one part of it may cause that part to change to a different location in the brain, especially if you are a baby or a child. Beyond that, every thought, experience or skill we encounter and learn changes the structure of our brain.
- Memories aren’t built in a linear progression. We only remember ‘pictures’ or moments, and we put together a story from them ourselves. That is why it’s tricky to trust your memory, because you may have done some ‘editing’ without knowing it.
- The brain alone uses 20% of all the oxygen we breathe and over 25% of the sugar we consume.
- The human brain has more ‘wrinkles’ and crevices than those of other animals. In this way, the brain gets more surface space, while staying at around the same size, and it is part of the reason for our increased intelligence.
On, March 31st , an unprecedented feat occurred amid all the chaos that the populace of Nigeria was undergoing. It was the very first time, that an opposing party had defeated the current incumbent party in the democratic elections. The candidate who took four tries to win the presidency was a man named Muhammadu Buhari. Nigeria also held one of the most tumultuous campaign seasons, for this particular one had been extended by six weeks. This was mainly due to personal attacks as well as cross-party discrepancies. However, the result ended with Buhari winning by about 2.1 million more votes than his adversary Goodluck Jonathan.
Though the tight vote had sparked bitter dissonance between the two candidates and their supporters, the ultimate message that they both wanted to send to their hopeful citizens was to accept the outcomes of this fateful election. Goodluck Johnathan even said after the loss,”Nobody’s ambition is worth the blood of any Nigerian.”
Even though Buhari had evidently won the election, it was done through a great expense.This was something that was a pivotal phase in his career, and inflicted great wounds in terms of corruption , and his people. In 1985, Buhari was the military head of his northern state, and was overthrown in a violent coup that was lead by General Ibrahim Babangida, as well as a host of members of the Supreme Military Council (SMC). His detention lasted until 1988 in Benin city.
As a rejuvenated democrat, he pursued the presidency continuously in every election starting from 2003. This 72 year old man was, and still is campaigning to establish zero tolerance policies for corruption, and plans to decimate a supposedly volatile group of Boko Haram Islamists. This eminent group in the northern regions of Nigeria had killed and kidnapped thousands of citizens.
A clear-cut advantage that Buhari holds is that he has tremendous military experiences. Hence, he can fight the renegades of civil society. However, to confront the stagnant economic growth he said will be a much more strenuous task at hand. The plummeting oil prices,stimulated such growth , as well as the record lows that the Naira (Nigerian currency) had slumped to. The more impregnable problem that is most likely approaching, is the desire for the countries share of wealth in oil. Nevertheless, there is still a resolute belief in the nation’s democracy, as well as political maturity, which Buhari had evidenced in his victory speech on April 1st.
Mohammadu Buhari has undeniable faith in his people, and sees glory in every possibility despite his challenge of managing expectations. Nigeria is a country that is stricken with shock and overwhelming hope that a new leader has finally emerged to solve the conceivable issues facing this country’s pastors.