All posts by divyatalesra

THE WAY IN WHICH CHEMISTRY PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN MOVIES

After reading the title “The Way in which Chemistry Plays a Major Role in Movies”, you all may be contemplating the multifarious relationships evident among characters in movies or perhaps the complex interactions between two people, which can occasionally be referred to as chemistry. However, the term “chemistry” in this particular scenario embodies absolutely no affiliations with any attributes that may be intimating a relationship. Rather, it inhabits its orthodox definition as a branch of science and the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter as well as the changes matter undergoes. Although it may not appear patent at first, chemistry has numerous, profound roles in the making of all movies. To begin with, simply think about how a movie is made. By a director, right? WRONG! I mean yes, but think deeper! What does a director use to make a movie? A camera. How exactly does a camera capture the moments of life, and later display the moments onto the big screens? The correct answer is that a camera utilizes a vital component that is known as the film. The film, a major constituent of a camera, is a pliable and attenuated strip of plastic with light-sensitive emulsion for exposure in a camera, fundamentally used to produce motion pictures. The primary chemicals (substances that have a definite composition) and compounds, which are made from the atoms of at least two chemically-bonded elements, become involved when actually developing the film. The first layer of a film is a protective coating which protects the emulsion layer that has the gelatin and the silver halide crystals in it. (Higher speeds of film have multiple layers of emulsion.) The next layer is the film base, which is a polymer that is chemically stable and flexible. The last layer is the anti-halation backing, which precludes reflections off the back of the film

Moreover, the origins of photographic processes date back to the 1800s and yet were still astonishingly dependent on chemistry. The beginnings of photographic processes were devised by William Talbot during the 1830s. Talbot’s procedure consisted of continuously rinsing paper in baths of saltwater and silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution, hence depositing silver chloride (AgCl) in the fibers of the paper. Afterwards, this wet piece of paper was exposed in a camera till a dark, silvery image appeared in the light-struck regions, and the remaining silver chloride (AgCl) was removed by washing it with a concentrated salt solution. By waxing or oiling the negative sheet, Talbot made the paper translucent, and then by making an exposure of diffuse light through the negative onto another sensitized sheet, he produced a positive image. Therefore, an interminable number of copies of a photograph could have been generated from any one negative. In other words, behind the multiplex concept of filmmaking and photography lies a simple (or not so simple) answer: science, and specifically, chemicals and compounds, which are all ultimately a part of chemistry. In the following centuries, as photographic processes advanced, mechanisms of processing undeniably altered to later on, produce color and digital photography.

All in all, behind a movie is a director, behind a director is a camera, behind a camera is a film, and behind a film is the work of chemistry. As technology continues to expeditiously evolve, along will come the emergence of further advanced photography, and along, in the years to follow, will come the institution of an augmented role played by chemistry throughout the film industry via the concept of photography.

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Serena Williams is Truly Unique

As Patrick Mouratoglou had stated, after Serena Williams had won her 21st grand slam in singles tennis, it is undoubtedly true that “Serena is unique”. Although Maria Sharapova, Victoria Azarenka, and various other female tennis professionals won numerous grand slams, Serena is simply a class above them. Currently ranked no. 1 in the world and holding the record of being the oldest female tennis player to win a grand slam, she aspires to hold the record of winning the most number of grand slams as well, embodying much hope for beating former German tennis player’s, Steffi Graf’s, record of  22 grand slams.

However, Serena has numerous goals in mind; not just of holding the record of winning the most championships. She is additionally seeking to have a calendar-year grand slam, which is when a player wins all four grand slams (Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon, and the US Open) in a single year. With Williams having completed seventy-five percent of her goal, she evidently is thrilled about completing her calendar-year grand slam in her home country in the United States as she states, “It would be incredible. It would be really good to have this opportunity to go in New York, being American, with that incredible New York crowd. I don’t have words to say how I feel.”

A picture of Serena Williams after she won her 21st Grand Slam, in South West London.

In Serena Williams’ most recent grand slam tournament, which was the Wimbledon Championships, she seemed to have cruised through most of the rounds, and astonishingly as well as in the semifinals, beating Maria Sharapova with a score of 6-2 6-4, and afterwards, beating Spain’s Garbine Muguruza to win the championships. With multifarious, impressive records that Serena Williams holds, numerous experts, spectators, and commentators refer to her as the greatest female tennis player of all time, which is downright evident by her performance throughout her career as a professional.

Does Sea World Continue to Afflict Barbarity Upon Killer Whales?

The well-known Sea World Park, located in Florida, California, and Texas, have been keeping killer whales as hostages since December 1965. The first-ever killer whale show at Sea World Park in 1965 included a killer whale, named Shamu, as one of its adroit performers. The female orca, Shamu, was kidnapped from her vast, aquatic environment in the ocean by a marine “cowboy” named Ted Griffin, directly after Shamu’s mother had been murdered by a harpoon in the ocean. Griffin’s collaborative partners, such as Don Goldsberry, were later hired by the Sea World Company to unethically kidnap killer whales and transport them to the Sea World tanks.

Furthermore, killer whales that live freely in the midst of the oceans usually dive to the depths of 328 feet. The deepest dive, which was 850 feet, known for a killer whale was performed under experimental conditions. However, numerous tanks in famous theme parks have a depth of only 45 to 65 feet. For instance, in the Sea World that is located in Orlando, Florida, the deepest tank is only forty feet deep, while an average male killer whale is approximately 23 to 30 feet long and typically weighs 6 tons. In other words, these highly intelligent, social, and massive marine animals are living in a space that is equivalent to that of a “kiddie pool” for them. Killer whales are the largest members of the dolphin family, and with excessively large bodies, they clearly require a large habitat as well. They should not be confined to minuscule tanks.

With manifold killer whales held in captivity by multifarious amusement parks, safety and health concerns are raised not only for the killer whales, but also for the passionate performers. In fact, there have been exceedingly more than 100 recorded and identified cases, where the killer whales displayed severe aggression, chaotic swimming behaviors, and various other instances of frustration as a result of their confinement. Their intense frustration eventually served as a catalyst to attack their trainers/ performers, causing numerous injuries and even three deaths in the past 30 years. In 1991, a killer whale, named Tilikum, had killed Keltie Byrne, a former trainer at the now-closed Sealand of the Pacific in Victoria, British Columbia. After this incident, Sea World (Orlando) bought Tilikum after hearing that it was the world’s largest killer whale, weighing 12,500 pounds and over 22 feet in length, held in captivity and currently on the market, where he had further killed two trainers tragically. The stress of captivity caused Tilikum to kill Daniel P. Dukes in 1999 at Sea World and the senior 40-year-old trainer Dawn Brancheau on February 24, 2010. Moreover, Tilikum had even dismembered Dawn while he drowned her and broke most of her bones throughout her body. After this most recent death, Tilikum was placed in an extremely confined tank, which was 20 feet by 30 feet, with the head of Tilikum touching one end of the tank and its fluke touching the other end of the tank, for an entire year. After a year, the deadly male killer whale, Tilikum, made a reappearance and continues to perform for the public audiences with trainers/ performers, despite the numerous hazards Tilikum poses.

'Feasible': The judge said keeping trainers from swimming with killer whales during performances would reduce the risks of working with them (file photo)

 A picture of Dawn Brancheau, the star performer at Sea World, sitting on Tilikum’s mouth during a show.

Tilikum was captured in November of 1983, at the age of two years old when he was 13 feet long. He was not only torn away from his own family and his true habitat of the immense ocean, but he also became stressed due to his unscrupulous confinement. He has a collapsed dorsal fin, which means the killer whale is stressed as well as in inferior health conditions as scientists have discovered. All in all, Tilikum has undoubtedly endured several hardships that he should not have.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

http://www.seaworldofhurt.com/features/ten-things-didnt-know-seaworld/

http://seaworld.org/animal-info/animal-infobooks/killer-whale/adaptations/

http://www.seaworldofhurt.com/features/30-years-three-deaths-tilikums-tragic-story/

The Self-Driving Google Car: Another Leap For Mankind

We all know Google: our best friend when it comes to severely-needed homework help, recipes on how to prepare delectable Mexican cuisine, difficult trigonometry formulas, social media, and various other applications. As we can see, google has multifarious applications to offer the public. However, soon its website will not be the company’s primary fame – its cars will. The Google cars are a revolutionary way of commuting.  Google’s unique, self-driving car clearly manages to do the impossible, opening up a new, revolutionary phase in the field of technology development and autos.

early-vehicle-lores

To begin with an obvious point, this innovative car contains countless gadgets, processors, scanners, laser sensors, and various other types of modern technology. With a five-year old project like this taking place in California, USA, a strong, intelligent, innovative, and collaborative team is an essential requirement. Consequently, Google decided to call in the elite experts rather than the average workers. Their team comprises dexterous rocket scientists who have worked on NASA’s intricate Mars projects and adroit vehicle development engineers, such as Jaime Waydo. Each member of the vast and organized team undoubtedly plays a vital role in various, minor parts of the car, with each member being responsible for something different.

The car has multiple and expensive major and minor parts. Firstly, an expensive laser sensor, located at the top of the car, scans 360 degrees for any objects or other hazards within a certain radius of the car. A processor reads the data that has been accumulated by the various sensors and accordingly, regulates vehicle behavior. A hidden orientation sensor, located at the front of the car, tracks the car’s motion and balance, while the radar (a bulging black, oval also at the front of the car) accurately measures the speed of vehicles ahead of itself. Lastly, a wheel-hub sensor, which is located in the car’s tires, detects the number of rotations to help determine the car’s location. These are just a few, astounding pieces of technology in the pioneering car.

Moreover, in the past few months, the self-driving Google car went on several test drives during the beginning of Spring (2015) in California. As stated in the USA TODAY article titled A look inside the Google Car lair, “The Google Car had been waiting about four minutes at an intersection before finally deciding the coast was clear. A human might have taken a chance during a lesser break in traffic. Honking had ensued.” Evidently, this highly secure car does not take any chances.

All in all, with a goal of having driverless cars available on the market within a few years, these cars are sure to revolutionize commuting as well as technology.

History Should Not Repeat Itself

When hearing “The United States of America”, various phrases may occupy your mind, ranging from incomparable justice to detrimental obesity. After all, our precious nation is known for unique actions and manifold events, and one, rather vicious yet unforgettable, action that our nation executed was on August 6, 1945. Several historians, scientists, and soldiers attribute the titles of “The Day the World Changed Forever” and “Japan’s Terrible Destruction” to this date. August 6, 1945 is the day that the United States of America bombed the Japanese city of Hiroshima, as part of a bellicose movement during the World War II.

The first atomic bomb, the American B-29, was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The deadly bomb had abruptly, within milliseconds, killed 80,000 people; anyone who was within a one-mile radius of the bomb had been immediately vaporized and transformed into carbon instantaneously due to the intense heat, undergoing a painless yet extremely abrupt death. This gargantuan explosion had unfortunately wiped out ninety percent of the city’s population, and those who had luckily managed to survive, suffered numerous third-degree burns and various other wounds/ burns throughout their entire body. However, even though the bomb finished making its vastly detrimental effect, deaths continued. Thousands of people passed away later on due to the exposure of severe radiations. Furthermore, for the next several generations and decades, deformed babies were being born as a result of the radiations. Despite suffering thousands of deaths, Japan refused to surrender and exactly three days later, a second B-29 atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 40,000 people. Afterwards, Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced Japan’s unconditional surrender in the devastating and global World War II through a radio address on August 15, 1945, referring to the injurious and deadly power of the “new and most cruel bomb.”

Unfortunately, many people do not realize and fathom the deadly effects of an atomic bomb, and with the current advances in technology, powerful countries, such as the United States of America, Russia, France, China, Israel, United Kingdom, India, North Korea, and Pakistan are the few countries in the world that contain atomic bombs- and these bombs are not similar to the American B-29 bomb in any way. With constant advances in engineering, technology, and science in the previous decades, modern atomic bombs are approximately hundred times more powerful and deadlier than the B-29 bomb. In fact, the world has accumulated so much nuclear arsenal that the entire Earth can be completely annihilated multiple times! Astonishing, right?! The B-29 explosions in Japan undoubtedly serve a grim reminder of the danger of nuclear war. They educate the public on how devastating these atomic bombs are and definitely admonish the upcoming generations that the use of atomic bombs should be precluded as they have catastrophic consequences.

Clearly, we, as in all of humanity, have to learn from our mistakes to preclude them from reoccurring. As the banal cliche puts it “Those who don’t read history are condemned to repeat it.” All in all, mankind should not be subjected to this ordeal ever again, and thus, the public’s education is downright critical in order to ensure that history is not repeated, with its disastrous effects.

Developing Technology: Good or Bad?

T-E-C-H-N-O-L-O-G-Y. What is it? It’s a simple ten-letter word with so much depth and meaning, especially in the twenty-first century. This specific word gained so much more significance in the past few decades, as its use by people exponentially escalated. Till a specific point, it is beneficial, however in a similar fashion like a variety of most possessions, after a certain point, instead of serving as a beneficial tool, it rather places your precious and valuable life in jeopardy (after excess use). To begin with an obvious point, technology abruptly evolved in the late 1980s through the 2000s. Its establishment not only heavily affected humans, in general, but also severely influenced other organisms that are essential to our precious planet. For instance, power plants that are planted at a consistent distance throughout our nation disrupt habitats- and why do they disrupt numerous acres of preserved land for the wildlife? All because of humans. In other words, we are abolishing our own resourceful land. We are obliterating the organisms’ natural homes. We are annihilating a piece of our own planet, all because of technology. There are undoubtedly several hidden dangers of cell phones.

Moreover, it is even hurting humans through an indirect impact as well as through a direct impact. For instance, scientific discoveries have proven that cell phones are, in general, detrimental to users. The majority of cell phones have undoubtedly small screens, resulting in humans to squint their eyes, causing strain and stress in the humans’ eyes. Furthermore, cell phones give off radiation, which can be extremely detrimental for humans. These radiations reach your ear even when you casually talk on the phone. Consequently, it is suggested that one uses headphones when listening to music or even when one just casually chatters with someone on the phone to avoid any harmful rays reaching your ears. In addition, the most severe consequence of cell phones, that people consider to be the most obvious, is that cell phones result in a destitute of humans’ social skills. With the communication between two, ordinary people being through texting or other types of social media, young kids are losing their basic skills, such as eye contact and public speaking.

Evidently, cell phones, although quite beneficial and helpful, impose manifold and detrimental health issues to all its users. Fortunately, though, there are simple steps to preclude any harmful side effects, and the most basic one is to minimize the time you use your cell phone or not even have a cell phone at all!